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A Developer's Guide to the JavaScript Framework Landscape 2023

Building frontend experiences today can be an arduous task, particularly for developers who need to be more versed in the ins and outs of JavaScript.

JavaScript is the most popular programming language around when it comes to modern web development and building frontend experiences. But with the assortment of frameworks, it can get a bit overwhelming.

Should you choose a tried-and-tested framework like Angular? Or opt for a more modern technology like Svelte? Just how many frameworks are there?

With this guide, we’ve removed that confusion for you, and we’ll offer the ultimate guide on the JavaScript framework landscape for 2023.

What you need to know about JavaScript

JavaScript is the programming language of the modern web. It is critical for creating interactivity and building an engaging and enjoyable user experience. The language works in the browser and is not only used for building websites but also for other web and mobile applications. 

Created in 1995 by Brendan Eich as part of Netscape, JavaScript is often confused with Java. However, JavaScript is its own language and can be considered the standard for frontend development. If you think of the fillable contact forms, animations, and image slideshows you come across on the internet, all of this is made using JavaScript. 

Why is JavaScript so popular?

The popularity of JavaScript can’t be understated as it is used as the client-side language for 98% of websites, according to W3Techs. So why is JavaScript so popular?

Moreover, many organizations are also focusing on innovative approaches such as MACH architecture for building their technology ecosystems. The language at the heart of these frontend experiences is JavaScript, so the popularity can’t be expected to slow down anytime soon. 

Now that we’ve explained what you need to know about JavaScript let’s dive into the frameworks.

Top JavaScript frameworks: key things to know

The ten frameworks we’ve highlighted have been chosen based on some of the most commonly used frameworks in Stack Overflow’s Developer Survey 2022. Here’s a rundown of some of the key things you need to know.

Deep dive into the top Javascript frameworks



Website: https://nextjs.org/ 

Latest Release & Version: Next.js 13 Shipped October 2022. 

What is it?

Next.js is an open-source web development framework based on React. Developers use Next.js for building fast and typically static pages and content. However, it can also be used with dynamic content and data. 

There are three types of rendering available with Next.js: server-side rendering, client-side rendering, and static site generation. It also offers automatic code splitting, which can help to improve performance and make sites more responsive.

Key Features

Some of Next.js’ key features include server-side rendering, static site generation, static routing, and centralized development. 

Top Use Cases


Next.js Pros

Next.js Cons



Website: https://reactjs.org/ 

Latest Release & Version: Version 18.2 was released in June 2022. 

What is it?

React is a JavaScript library used to build user interfaces and can cater to small or large websites alike. Developed by Meta (formerly Facebook) in 2011, React has been used as an open-source software since 2013. 

React follows a modular approach to building user interfaces by breaking complex UI elements into HTML components.

Key Features

React’s key features include its reusable components, declarative and extensible code, dynamic routing, and client-side rendering.

Top Use Cases

React.js Pros 

React.js Cons

Read more: Compare React.js to Next.js



Website: https://vuejs.org/ 

Latest Release & Version: v3.2.41 released August 2021.

What is Vue?

Vue.js is a JavaScript framework that Evan You created in 2014. A progressive framework, Vue.js is used to build user interfaces and SPAs and is incrementally adoptable from its core. Depending on the use case, it can also be used as a framework or a library. 

Unlike other frameworks that have massive backing from the likes of Facebook and Google, Vue has grown in popularity through a vibrant community and has wide adoption on GitHub. 

Key Features

Some of the key features of Vue.js that make it popular include support for ES5-compliant browsers, a core library that focuses only on the viewer, and a fast virtual DOM.

Top Use Cases

Some of the best examples of what you can build using Vue.js include navigation menus and order forms. Vue.js is also used on websites including Netflix, Grammarly, and GitLab. 

Vue.js Pros

Vue.js Cons



Website: https://angularjs.org/ 

Latest Releases and Version: Google ended support for Angular ended in January 2022 

What is Angular?

Angular was developed by Google and released in 2010. It is an open-source JavaScript framework that can be used to create web applications. Angular leverages declarative templates, end-to-end tooling, dependency injection, and more to make building web applications much easier. 

Key Features

Some of Angular’s key features include support for 2-way data binding, quick and easy declaration of static documents, built-in testability, and support for dependency injection. 

Top Use Cases

The most popular use cases for Angular include building eCommerce applications, real-time data applications (weather updates), and content portal applications. 

Angular Pros

Angular Cons



Website: https://nuxtjs.org/ 

Latest Releases and Version: Version v2.15.8 was released on August 11, 2021. 

What is Nuxt?

Nuxt.js is an open-source JavaScript framework for building web applications. Inspired by Next.js, it is based on vue.js, node.js, Babel.js, and webpack. For Vue developers, Nuxt.js enables simple, quick, and organized web development. 

Nuxt.js include highly effective functionality for web application development and static site generation. 

Key Features

Some of Nuxt.js’ key features include: 

Top Use Cases

Nuxt.js is ideal for building SPAs and use cases that require server-side rendering or static site generation. 

Nuxt Pros

Nuxt Cons

Read more: Compare Next.js to Nuxt.js

svelte logo


Website: https://svelte.dev/ 

Latest Releases and Version: v3.52.0 released October 2022. 

What is Svelte?

Svelte is an open-source JavaScript framework similar to other frameworks such as React and Vue. While it enables developers to build interactive web applications just as they would with other frameworks, Svelte also offers a unique developer experience. 

While other frameworks do most of the work in the browser, Svelte works while the app is being built and compiles to Vanilla JavaScript which in turn reduces the overhead and improves readability. 

Key Features

Some of Svelte’s key features include fewer code requirements allowing for greater efficiency and no virtual DOM. 

Use Cases

Svelte is useful for building small components of a user interface. Some of the primary use cases include web applications for low-power devices, interactive pages and complex visualizations. 

Svelte Pros

Svelte Cons

express logo


Website: https://expressjs.com/ 

Latest Releases and Version: 4.18.2 was released in October 2022. 

What is Express?

Express.js is a flexible and minimalistic Node.js framework used for backend development. It was originally released as a free, open-source framework in 2010 under an MIT license. Express.js was made for building web applications and APIs and is the standard framework for Node.js.

Express allows developers to save time and resources rather than build a backend from scratch using Node.js.

Key Features

Some of Express.js’ key features include faster server-side development, an advanced routing mechanism, and templating engines. 

Use Cases

Express.js is primarily used for building RESTful APIs. 

Express Pros

Express Cons

Callback problems and client request issues due to the middleware are some of the main cons of Express.js.

node.js logo


Website: https://nodejs.org/en/ 

Latest Releases and Version:v19.x released October 2022

What is Node.js?

Node.js is a server-side JavaScript runtime that runs on Chrome’s V8 JavaScript engine. Node.js executes JavaScript code outside of the browser and helps developers build fast, scalable, and reliable server-side applications. Developers can use Node.js to convert JavaScript code into machine code.

Key Features

Some key features of Node.js include fast code executive, a single-threaded model, quick data streaming, and minimum buffering. 

Top Use Cases

The primary use cases for Node.js include building server-side applications, browser-based games, and real-time web applications. Companies like GoDaddy, LinkedIn, and IBM leverage Node.js for various use cases.

Node.js Pros

Node.js Cons



Website: https://www.gatsbyjs.com/ 

Latest Releases and Version: Version 4.7.2 was released in February 2022.

What is Gatsby?

Gatsby is an open-source frontend framework originally viewed as simply a Static Site Generator. However, the framework has now evolved to include server-side rendering. Both approaches include pre-rendering functionality, which adds to the user experience by providing faster loading times.

Gatsby’s design approach is meant to keep the native code as lightweight as possible. It includes a vast ecosystem of plugins and templates to compensate for any feature loss. These templates and plugins provide developers with an easy starting point for their development journey and additional capabilities for their applications. 

Key Features

Some of the key features Gatsby offers include the pre-rendering of pages to reduce server requirements, a vast open-source plugin ecosystem, and high performance. 

Top Use Cases

Gatsby has several use cases, including B2B SaaS websites and eCommerce applications. It is a frequently used static site generator and beneficial for progressive web applications and building Jamstack sites. 

Gatsby Pros

Gatsby Cons

Read more: Next.js vs Gatsby

jQuery logo


Website: https://jquery.com/ 

Latest Releases and Version: Version 3.6.1 was released in August 2022. 

What is jQuery?

jQuery is an older JavaScript framework and library created in 2006 by John Resign. The free, open-source software is licensed by MIT and is lightweight and feature-rich. jQuery enables simpler HTML document manipulation, traversal, and event handling. 

Many sites rely on jQuery as it is easy to use with a minimalist API with a syntax similar to CSS, making it easy to learn. 

Key Features

Some of jQuery’s key features include HTML/DOM manipulation, HTML event methods, and CSS manipulation. It also contains several plugins for numerous tasks. 

Use Cases

Some of the most popular use cases for jQuery include building Ajax-based applications and as a key component in WordPress themes. 

jQuery Pros

jQuery Cons

Honorable Mentions

While outside the Top 10 JavaScript frameworks found in Stack Overflow’s survey, these other five frameworks continue to grow in popularity, and developers should take note of them.


Nest.js is a Node framework primarily for developing server-side applications. Released in 2017 as an open-source web development platform, Nest.js framework is built using Typescript and offers a component-based architecture inspired by Angular. Some characteristics of applications built using Nest.js include high scalability and testability.

Compare Next.js to Next.js.


TypeScript isn’t a JavaScript framework per se but rather an object-oriented, compiled programming language that builds on JavaScript. Known as a superset of JavaScript, TypeScript provides tooling at any scale and is often referred to as JavaScript with more features. The open-source language and framework include backing from Microsoft, which should explain its growing popularity. 


Bootstrap is an open-source framework for frontend development that enables developers to build fast and mobile responsive websites. Originally released in 2011, Bootstrap gives developers increased flexibility and saves them time, particularly when writing CSS code. 


Backbone.js is a lightweight JavaScript framework based on the model view presenter (MVP) architecture. Backbone essentially separates concerns which enable a better structured and maintained application. Created in 2010, Backbone includes a RESTful JSON interface that is beneficial for building client-side web applications.


Remix is a full-stack JavaScript framework for web development. It was created by the React-router team in 2020 and open-sourced in 2021. This latest addition to the React-based tools provides an edge native framework for building modern, fast, and robust developer and user experiences.

Compare Next.js to Remix.

Zesty.io: The Ultimate JavaScript CMS

We’ve only listed a handful of JavaScript frameworks, but the ecosystem is enormous, and new updates are being released regularly. Regardless of the JavaScript framework, having a robust CMS that can help you get the most out of the front-end experience is crucial. 

Zesty.io is a flexible headless CMS that integrates with any JavaScript framework. With Zesty.io, everything is handled in the backend while you have total control over where and how your content is deployed. Zesty.io also includes an easy-to-use schema for content modeling, automated SEO, and faster page loading times.

While being a headless CMS and framework agnostic enables Zesty.io to handle any JavaScript framework, we are firm advocates of Next.js and allow you to get more out of Next.js than any other headless CMS. With our Next.js integration, you can automatically resolve Next.js pages using minimal configuration, change content schemas how you need without worrying about changing code, and so much more. 

Also, unlike other headless CMSs that don’t cater to content authors, Zesty.io offers hybrid functionality to give them a similar content authoring experience to the one they might have known from a traditional CMS. 

Now you can build the perfect digital experiences for your audience with a flexible-API headless CMS. Take a look at our Next.js integration to learn more


By Andres Galindo

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